Haragei, the physical side

Haragei, the art of hara is a concept with a lot of interpretations and is essentially a concept referring mainly in a metaphysical context. There is also a physical aspect when we look at “haragei”. The hara in single words is the part under the diaphragm and consist of “koshi”, “tanden” and “yobu”. In some historical documents written by famous swordmen, the skill of the hara is referred to and even explained how to do it.

The perfect handling of the sword is produced by the integration of three elements: the rotation of the koshi, the diagonal tensions produced by this rotation and the displacement of the body.

Morita Monjuro

Rotation of the koshi, mostly translated as rotation of the hips, is in many cases explained too simple. Rotation is not only in the horizontal plane, but also in a vertical plane. By adding diagonal tension or movement, the rotation of the koshi becomes multidirectional.

Multidirectional movement creates a kind of sphere and can be seen as a balloon in the lower part of the trunk, in other words Hara.

Hara Power is frequently mentioned in publications on Bodywork and Martial Arts. Some of the publications give you a good insight in the development of the Hara. I already wrote some ideas and info on the concept of Hara. But new developments are coming to the surface after daily training and need some explanation.

Where is “hara” localised?

Hara is a 3-part structure in the lower part of the trunk.

  • Koshi
  • Tanden
  • Yobu

The term “koshi” is usually translated either as “kidneys”, or as “hips” or as “pelvis”, but these translations are approximate. Koshi is an area located on the lower back, the opposite of the tanden located in the lower abdomen.
The tanden and the koshi, located on either side of the body, in practice form a whole. Each use of the koshi muscles is transmitted to the tanden by stimulating it by pressure, which positively activates different parts of the nervous system. Yobu is referring to the waist and these muscles will be used for turning action of the trunk.

The muscles of the koshi and the tanden form a unit, but their roles are not the same. The tanden is the centre of the hara and is the place of a relative no-movement. The training of the koshi is synonymous with the training of the tanden.

In our study, Hara will be used in many exercises, especially during Tenshikei movements.
However, a practitioner cannot develop Hara without breathing and the movement and stretching of the respiration-related tissues. Full development of the Hara will include the winding motion of tenshi, rotational internal movement or silk reeling movements. The power generated by tenshi is called tenshikei and is expressed by the movement of the arms or legs.

Mata-股 = 胯 – kua & 裆 – dang

Japanese terminology and Chinese terminology can create some confusion and need some explanation.

The translation of “mata” can be “inner thigh” or “groin”, “crotch”, “femur”……
In our study, reference has to be made in the area around the hip-joint.

In Chinese martial arts and movement methods, 2 words are used to describe the “mata” region.

  • 胯 – kua or kwa
  • 裆 – dang

“Kua” in Chinese has a reference to “hips”. Our waist and hips have to be relaxed and loosened. . Only then can power flow down from the body to the legs and your feet. It helps to give your feet the foundation of your strength. Then your power can build up throughout your entire body.

How to relax or loosen up our hips? During practice, we have to bend our knees, flex (means bend or fold, not tense up) our hip joints, and sit on our legs.

“Dang” means “crotch”, the place where our legs meet the body. Our crotch has to be round like an arch. When our crotch is round and open, we can shift weight more freely. If we make our knee move very slightly closer to each other, our crotch can be made round. You will feel also the heels will go slightly outside. Keep weight on the ball of the feet.

Yobu – Yao

The waist is a part of the Hara and is used during many body movements. For example the turning of the trunk happens more efficiently when the muscles of the waist are used.

The efficient body movement is achieved by integrating the diagonal tensions of the body which cross it from the legs to the arms. By applying this skill, the force spontaneously filled the tanden. The use of the waist is an integral part of a full body movement. This skill can be seen in tenshikei or winding power, a kind of rotational strength.

An example with wooden sword training

To strike correctly from the tanden and the koshi, it is necessary to obtain a perfect handling of the body or a perfect handling of the sword. It is a skill that is produced by the two diagonal forces which go from the right leg to the left arm, and from the left leg to the right arm.
The cutting power of the sword is produced by the integration of the three elements: the rotation of the hara, the diagonal tensions produced by this rotation and the displacement of the body.

The mechanism of sword cutting can be used when you apply atemi to the opponent by using tegatana or other parts of the body to produce a shock into the opponent. It is of course also very effective with some throwing technique like “shomen ate” or “gyaku gamae ate”.

Serape effect and diagonal tension

“Muscles must be placed on their longest length in order to exert their greatest force”

The serape effect is a rotational trunk movement that It stretches the muscles to their greatest length; when this tension is released from these muscles they shorten for the completion of the movement, a greater velocity is applied than had the muscles performed from a normal resting length.

Hara is a key factor in the use of the of diagonal tension, in other words: Tenshikei

The rotation of the pelvic girdle is a part of the tenshi movement and is important for creating a more efficient use of power in the direction of the target. The rotational movement of this large body segment, the trunk, enables a summation of internal forces that is able to be transferred from this large area to a smaller area as such as the arm and the hand for applying force to the opponent.

Conditions for developing “hara” strength

There are some conditions to achieve an efficient exercise

  • Correct breathing (kokyu)
  • Winding movements (tenshi)
  • Relax or loosen up koshi and mata
  • Using intent (I in Japanese – Yi in Chinese)

Correct breathing

Basically, during practise our intent is not on the breathing process. Breathing is an involuntary process. Nevertheless, during exercises, focus can be put on certain aspects of breathing to strengthen the breathing muscles.

During breathing, pulling the perineum is a skill to put pressure on the hara and forces to provide movement to the muscles used for deep breathing. By exerting these muscles become stronger and will support the “tenshi” movements. As a result, tenshikei power becomes more effective and stronger.

Winding movements

Winding movements create a kind of corkscrew strength. This strength does not initiate from the foot. It initiates from the trunk of the body. It transfers down toward the foot when standing, and then it rebounds from the foot back up and on through the body. When sitting in seiza, the same can be performed. The movement start at shoulder level, next a diagonal movement and finished by a movement of the pelvis. Releasing the tension happens in the opposite order.

Relax and loosen up hip joint

It is often said in many dojos: “drop your shoulders”. But if your “koshi” or pelvis is frozen or too weak, you will have difficulties dropping your shoulders. If pelvis are frozen, you cannot bring down your hara, if your pelvis is too weak, you will hold up your hara too high.

Strengthening the koshi and loosen up the hip joints will give support to the hara. Even in a standing or sitting posture, you need the feeling of sitting upon the sit bones.

Using intent

I in Japanese – Yi in Chinese – Yi is mostly translated as “intention” or also as “wisdom mind”. It refers to one’s experience or knowledge base. A practitioner might have a strong spirit, but without good tactics, combat knowledge and martial skills, the practitioner would not be able to fight very effectively.

So, intent is the skill to access your knowledge base which is acquired after successful training. The beginners knowledge base is very limited and using “intent” is very difficult and mentally tiring. After sufficient training, the knowledge base becomes a source derived from all your training experiences.

Practical exercises with diagonal tension

There are many exercises with diagonal tension. Mostly it will depend on the practical use of the exercise in the syllabus of the chosen martial art. In case of Tomiki’s Aikido, Tandoku Undo Tegatana Dosa is an excellent choice to incorporate diagonal tension.

Keypoints Tandoku Undo Tegatana Dosa 1

  • Take chidori ashi posture
  • Lift hand above head (jodan)
  • Feel the line between the foot and the hand
  • Lower hand into chudan posture
  • Perform koshi mawari
  • Do not turn the feet and knees
  • Keep your “koshi” flexible but firm

During the 2nd half of the exercise, keep diagonal tension line.

Keypoints Tandoku Undo Tegatana Dosa 2

  • Start with chidori ashi posture
  • In chudan posture, turn palm upwards
  • Turn waist, keep arm in front of chest
  • Turn palm downwards
  • Turn waist to the front
  • Keep the movement of knees minimal
  • Keep “koshi” flexible but firm

During this exercise, keep diagonal tension line

During the 2nd half of the exercise, keep diagonal tension line. Turning of the waist and diagonal tension generate power into the hand.

Keypoints Tandoku Undo Tegatana Dosa 3 -part 1

  • Chidori ashi posture
  • Keep the movement of knees minimal
  • Use diagonal tension

Keypoints Tandoku Undo Tegatana Dosa 3 -part 1

  • Chidori ashi posture
  • Using waist without moving feet and knees
  • Use diagonal tension

The impact of the back

When using kyokotsu properly, it will affect koshi and oscillate between 2 positions according to kyokotsu movement.

Normal posture and slightly pulling in arms, kyokotsu is in forward position.

Pushing out arms, kyokotsu is in backward position and tilt the pelvis forward.

The effect of koshi-mawari

There is an interesting aspect on the integration of koshi -mawari in our martial art movements. The range of our movements becomes greater when integrating koshi-mawari.

The skill of koshi-mawari is defined by 3 major aspect:

  • use of chidori-ashi
  • vertical turning of koshi
  • horizontal turning of koshi

There are more aspect in koshi-mawari, but lets keep it simple, if this is possible, and only discuss the 3 major aspects to make the range of the movement greater. Making the range greater is not performed by overstretching the arm, or leaning into the direction of the target. The vertical and horizontal turning of the koshi has a dramatically increase of the range.

By using a sword the range of a cut can be visually presented.

Kiri-oroshi – a vertical cut with the sword

This is “kiri-oroshi” or vertical cut. Of course each “style” has a special flavour, but in general most of the cutting is according this method. Mostly, the head of opponent is the target. If the cut is lower, there is the possibility to cut the wrist or other target.

Chudan no kamae with vertical koshi-mawari

When talking about koshi-mawari, mostly a horizontal turn is considered. Vertical turn of the koshi is more difficult to perform and need a lot of training. The example here is of course a little exaggerated, but it expressed visually the vertical turn of the koshi.

Remark also, there is no change in the position of the sword when performing the vertical turn.

From chidori-ashi to shumoku-ashi

Adopting chidori-ashi no kamae with vertical koshi turning, and again some exaggeration to illustrate the vertical turn.

From chidori-ashi to shumoku-ashi, the range becomes greater. The supplemental range is about the size of the sword part for kiri-oroshi to the target (head).

Koshi-mawari is using a horizontal & verical turn of the koshi.

Integration koshi-mawari in kiri-oroshi

Performing kiri-oroshi while using koshi-mawari (horizontal & vertical turn of koshi) will greatly improve the range, but also an improvement in power generation by using a full body concept.

Tai-jutsu and koshi mawari

Using koshi-mawari (horizontal & vertical turn of koshi) when performing tai-jutsu (unarmed techniques) will have the same effect as the use of koshi-mawari during armed techniques (sword, spear or stick).

Integrating Koshi Mawari

This is a sequel on “Aikidō: A Matrix Budō“. We will go deeper into the movements of the koshi, namely koshi mawari. The skill of koshi-mawari is practised at the first place with solo-exercises: tandoku undo.

During a seminar (March 2007), Fumiaki Shishida – JAA-Shihan re-introduced the concept of chidori-ashi.

  1. Unsoku (Shumoku-ashi 3 basics, Chidori-ashi, Denden-daiko)
  2. Quick posture change from natural posture
  3. Tegatana-awase (including the principle of Japanese swordsmanship)
  4. Shotei-awase (Skill to stop the partner.)
  5. Applications (Balance breaking with chidori-ashi, Relaxation from a hand sword)

Shisei or Postures

There are many kind of postures. Each Budō form has his own postures. But there are elements which can be found in each Budō form. A good posture allows maximum efficiency in terms of time and space. Posture is not static, there are always movements in the body to adjust balance and preparation to generate power.

Posture based upon “chidori ashi” will give you a better efficiency in generating coiling or wrapping power (tenshikei). The engine for such kind of power is “koshi mawari” which can be translated as: turning koshi.

When koshi rotates, the opponent is dominated by this rhythm. He has to follow against his will. He experiences the defeat as a non-violent, pleasant experience. That is precisely why it means losing with a smile on your lip.

It must be borne in mind that the arms and legs together with koshi always form a unity of movements. This is called “rendo“.

Feet positions in postures

Shizentai – Neutral Posture

Shizentai or neutral posture can be used as a meditative posture. It is also a posture to have the idea of “ready to start training”.

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Shumoku (shimoku) Ashi Posture

Shumoku or shimoku are 2 words for the same concept of foot position in an on-guard posture.

Shumoku originally the wooden bell hammer, a beam that is attached to Japanese bells at right angles. This way of stepping is frequently used with tsugi ashi or shuffle. Remark the 2 pattern: L-position and T-position. Both position will be used when hamni-gamae or sideway posture is adopted. The T-position is more convenient for hito-e-i posture, L-posture will give you a more slightly frontal posture. Sometimes, the front foot is slightly open? Although we speak about posture, we must understand the dynamics of this posture and the methods of changing positions in relation with oppponent.

Kenji Tomiki: It is good to wait in mugamae (shizentai) and to assume hanmi (shumoku ashi posture) as the opponent enters.

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Chidori Ashi Posture

Feet position or stepping named after a bird of the same name (chidori=plover), the traces of which resemble those of the feet-position turned outwards.

The chidori foot position differs from the Shumoku position, the front foot is open. Shumoku is not very suitable for our koshi-mawari purposes. Chidori ashi is the perfect method to excellent in koshi-mawari

The front foot turns slightly outward in relation to the direction of the target, the back foot follows at a 90 degree angle to the front foot position. The resulting angle of the front foot of 15 to 45 degrees in relation to the centerline causes the koshi to turn and to lower.

This posture gives an excellent opportunity to perform: “koshi-mawari”. Changing from shumoku ashi into chidori ashi is simple:

  • Turn front foot open
  • Drop bodyweight more into back foot.
  • Turn body almost complete frontal.

Shumoku ashi and chidori ashi can be used to perform unsoku-ho (foot movements).

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Shumoku Ashi Gamae

Such a posture will be mostly used during “katachi” or “kata” performances. Bodyweight is more to the back foot. Under the heel of the front foot is an opening of about 1or 2 mm.

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Chidori Ashi Gamae

By assuming this posture, the performance of koshi-mawari will be much better.

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Chidori ashi and koshi-mawari

Koshi-mawari can be performed at any time without a break, when your koshi is lowered sufficiently, with slightly springy knees. This makes it easier to react spontaneously to changes in any situation. If koshi does not lower in itself, so that one is only stiff and rock-solid, the chidori position cannot be performed. One speaks of a “lifeless”, that is to say an non-energetic position or a stiff kamae. Koshi-mawari and chidori are mutually dependent. If you fail to combine the koshi rotation with the chidor foot position, you run the risk of defeat.

So, we first adopt the chidori postion, let the koshi sink and perform koshi-mawari. Easy, isn’t it.

Hiraki

The term basically describes a lateral “opening” of the body, which, however, should not be confused with simply evading. The starting position is the left or right basic position. Koshi is now turning (without the upper body) in the opposite direction, which means that as soon as you release the resulting tension in the body and combine it with a small step, you come to a slightly laterally offset position next to the baseline without the movement jerky approach. A maximum 15 ° angling is enough to distance yourself from the opponent’s line of attack. It shouldn’t be any more so that the opponent cannot recognize it.
Hiraki uses the ball principle. A ball can rotate freely in a direction from a push or push, depending on the angle of impact, be it horizontally or vertically or in a combination of both directions also in a spiral shape.

Tandoku undo – Taisabaki

Tandoku-undo is just a name for solo-exercises and can have different names depending on the puspose of the exercises. Also, the content of tandoku-undo can also be very different, depending on the school you are practising martial art. As a beginner this is very confusing, the skill is to find out the principles and apply them in the exercises.

Another name for tandoku undo is Taisabaki: the moving body.

All actions have to be seen as an implementation of the free moving body concept. Therefore, tandoku undo or taisabaki regarded as a free moving body movements, should never be neglected as it is a practice for acquiring the principle of yawara, jū or aiki.

Although tandoku undo or taisabaki do not yet result in any techniques, if you train the body in the way the koshi-mawari moves, this has a decisive advantage when it comes to performing specific waza (techniques).

It is a great challenge to integrate “koshi mawari” into Tandoku undo or Taisabaki. Basically the first step to do is integrating chidori ashi posture. Next step is to become familiar with koshi and tanden, the lower part of the central body. This is not easy and will take a few years to become aware.

Koshi mawari is not about turning the hips, there is much more going on. As a reminder, it should be repeated again: in Budō it is very important that the movements are smooth and flexible (yawara). It is best achieved on the basis of the koshi-mawari, i.e. freely rotatable koshi. There is no other way to succeed than to acquire these flowing, spherical, horizontal and vertical rotations. The way there just leads over taisabaki.

Tandoku undo/Taisabaki Points

  • dropping the bodyweight
  • smooth movements
  • stretching the body
  • rotation start with waist movement
  • using diagonal tension (Monjuro Morita concept*)
  • …..

*Monjuro Morita (1889-1978)

Koshi-rotation

Adapted from Kenji Tokitsu book : Miyamoto Mushashi, Myth & Reality

The perfect handling of the sword is produced by the integration of three elements: the rotation of koshi (koshi-mawari), diagonal tension produced by this rotation and displacement of the body.

Traditionally, displacement in tandoku undo is done in a straight line forward. In relation with an opponent, this is of course a mistake. There are basically 3 mistakes (no koshi-turn, left and right koshi-turn without displacement) when considering the integration of koshi into tandoku undo.

To avoid such mistakes, moving slightly of the central line is a solution.

Integration of such an evasion makes the exercise much more difficult. Students have to think in the beginners-phase on many things.

The moving off the central line when introducing foot displacements can be done later when student understand tegatana and koshi movements (see again Morita Monjuro advice about using koshi and diagonal tension).

Tandoku undo – taisabaki

When integrating koshi-mawari into tandoku undo – tegatana no godosa, some adjustements has to be done. Koshi-mawari is often mentioned in explanations, but it is not often seen in demonstrations of katachi, kata or randori.

How to perform a “simple” koshi-mawari

Tegatana no godosa

Originally, Tomiki sensei introduced 5 methods to use tegatana. Those movements are integrated into tandoku undo taisabaki. When introducing the student into the 5 methods with the help of tandoku undo taisabaki, we can start without the foot displacement for tandoku 1 to 3. The integration of koshi maware together with the tegatana movements will be in such a case much more easier.

Starting position for tandoku undo tai sabaki.

Tandoku undo 1

Practising tandoku undo 1 can be done in 2 ways

  • With displacement
  • Without displacement

An example without displacement and turning footwork:

An example with displacement:

Tandoku undo 1

Shōmen-uchi, striking with tegatana from above or from below to the center line of the opponent.

There are different methods to practise.

  • Staying on the central line
  • Moving away from the central line
  • Moving forward
  • Moving backward
  • other…..

Use koshi-mawari when preparing for a strike. This is creating a kind of tension in the body (tenshikei) and can be used as spiral power.

This tandoku undo has many purposes and can be called a multi-purpose skill. Basically there are 3 kinds of skill:

  • Study of “kamae”
  • From jodan gamae attack or defence using shomen-uchi (striking)
  • From gedan gamae attack or defence using shomen-utsu (punching)

Tandoku undo 2

Yokomen-uchi, striking with tegatana to the side of opponent (head, arm,…). This yokomen-uchi has 2 modes: uchi-mawashi and soto-mawashi.

Tandoku undo 3

Tandoku undo 4

Tandoku undo 5

Tandoku undo 6

Tandoku undo 7

Ukimi – The floating body

A lightness of the body, a feeling of complete weightlessness, hovering sensation of the body that is established by koshi-mawari.

When we practise with our without a partners, we must always be ready to use both legs or feet to move. The skill of taijū no dendō is putting the weight in the koshi, not in the legs or feet. If the weight is in the koshi and we move with koshi-mawari and/or unsoku, a feeling of weightlessness will fill the body. An eventually partner will feel almost nothing and his bodyweight will dropp into the floor. Of course if he has the same skill, a different game has to be played. This game is called: hyoshi.

An example of using chidori ashi & koshi-mawari

Hara : Koshi, Tanden & Yōbu

Hara – Tanden, Koshi & Yōbu

Basically Hara is the lower part of the central body. Mostly it is translated as “belly” or “abdomen”. Hara has 3 major parts.

  • Koshi means the area of the hips. It also includes the lower back.
  • Tanden is a point below the navel, loosely translated as the energy centre (Chinese medicine and martial arts). It is the focal point for internal techniques and exercises.
  • Yōbu is the waist area. The Chinese word is Yao. The waist is the part of the abdomen between the rib cage and hips.

In our study, Hara will be used in many exercises, especially during Tenshikei.
When the body moves, Tanden is the centre and is the place of a relative no-movement.
The muscles associated with hara will be used to start movements.
Other methods to start a movement are taijū no idō or body weight shift and taijū no dendō or body weight transmission.

Kihon kō (基本功) 

Kihon ko is the Japanese word for Jiben Gong (Chinese) : Fundamental exercises.

In Budo Aikido, kihon training is mostly based upon elements from kata. The isolated movements are practised until a pattern is formed in the brain. Unsoku-ho, tegatana dosa,….are parts of kata. The belief is when you practise kata you will have the skills to defend yourself in a confrontation.
Unfortunately by practising kata alone, by experience we know this doesn’t work.
In Tomiki Aikido we have randori with 3 levels of difficulties. This of course will give you the necessary experience to have a better chance in a confrontation. But still there is something missing.
If you don’t know the internal mechanisms of the kata ,you are wasting your time with kata and randori.

Kihon training is the training of the isolated kata elements with integrated internal mechanisms.

What are the internal mechanisms of the kata?

The human spine is a very important part of our body. It gives support to our posture. Many muscles are attached to the spine, and gives us the ability to generate power. Especially the lower part of the spine plays a role in the use of the “hara”. We can say the koshi act as a kind of ‘interconnectedness’ between the skeletal and muscular structures in the lower section of the torso. Many teachers have often stressed the importance of having strong koshi, which supports basic kamae stance. Maintaining a strong kamae throughout movement appears crucial to providing a slightly lower centre of gravity that also pushes the weight towards the front. By establishing this firmness, the body pushes into the floor, creating a resistance that supports and facilitates the different methods of footwork.

During internal mechanisms, the abdominal, waist and back muscles are used to create a state of twisting, called “tame”. The meaning of tame is building up pressure in the abdomen.
(Tame 溜め, from the verb Tameru 溜める, to accumulate).

The misunderstanding of “tension”

1015_Types_of_Contraction_newIf we talk about tension, most of the people have an image of pulling in muscles (muscle contraction). This is not the tension we are looking for. In most cases this kind of power is a 2D movement. It is difficult to generate “spiral” power with this method.

Also actively over-stretching the muscle will not give the desired result, although when the stretch is released, power is generated but the risk of injuries are looking around the corner.

 

 

 

Tenshikei, twisting and untwisting, creates a form of tension in koshi, tanden and yōbu area. As previous explained, the word tension can be a source of misunderstanding.  Tenshikei twisting creates “pressure” in the abdomen. Besides twisting, breathing control can also creating pressure in the abdomen.
Tenshikei twisting can be seen as creating potential energy. Untwisting is releasing and converting of the potential energy into power. Many techniques of the kata can be improved by using the skill of tenshikei twisting and untwisting.

pressure01 4

In the picture above by squeezing the flexbar there is pressure towards the centre. It is potential energy which can be used by untwisting and directing the power.

Kyokotsu training is the first step to create potential energy. This kind of training is build upon 6 directions movements:

    • forward & back
    • up & down
    • turning left and right

Kyokotsu training for control of the spine

This kind of training is focussing on the lower part of the sternum. Manipulation of the kyokotsu has an effect on the lower spine, in other word “koshi”. Koshi can generate a lot of power in case we understand the function of mata, knees and ankles.

Another facet of this training is the use of yōbu or waist muscles to create tension  and release. It can generate power in up and down direction. For example “oshi taoshi” can be improved by well-functioning yōbu.

Footwork and tenshikei

Footwork is depending on taijū no idō or body weight shift and taijū no dendō or body weight transmission. In combination with tenshikei we can overcome the problem of distance when opponent is holding you.

Some basic exercises derived from kata and integrated internal mechanisms will certainly improve the efficiency of your kata.

Ayumi ashi and yōbu turning
Stepping forward and turning the waist (yōbu). This creates tension, by releasing the tension the knee comes forward and a step can be done in subconscious way. If we step in a conscious way, the opponent can sense our intention and eventually blocking it.

yobu walking

These Gifs give you a movement idea. The yōbu is the main component of the movement.

Hip-turning is not koshi turning

Hogan-ElasticBand

We often hear in the dojo, turn the hips and sometimes reference is made to the golfer hip-turn. When talking about turning koshi, this is sligthly different. When a golfer hit the ball with a correct technique, the ball will fly away. The golfer doesn’t control anymore the ball. In martial arts, when you throw someone, you have to control the opponent even after the throw. Controlling the opponent is depending on the control of our body and espescially control of mata.

Koshi turning &  taijū no idō or body weight shift

The turning of the koshi is depending on the flexibility of mata and knees. The knees are not wobbling to the side. The ball in socket structure of the hip-joint (mata), knee and ankle are forming a strong line, with the knee as a transport junction for the downward power.

Shoulder line, trunk and pelvis line are turning about 45° together with a weigth-shift. The trunk is turning more and the shoulder line is about 90°.

hipturn

sotai dosa 04

Rendo, the skill of linking movements

Linking isolated exercises is necessary to create full body movement